ter-3, terǝ- and teri-, trī-

ter-3, terǝ- and teri-, trī-
    ter-3, terǝ- and teri-, trī-
    English meaning: to rub
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “reiben; drehend reiben” (from which “drehen”), “(reibend) durchbohren”
    Note: also teru- : treu- (extended with b, g, gh, ĝh, k, p); here ter-2 “tender” (eig. “aufgerieben”, compare Lat. mollis : molō), and ter-6 in Worten for “malmendes insect”
    Material: A. O.Ind. turá- “wund” or “ sick “, ǘtura- ds.; Gk. τείρω “reibe (auf), bedränge, quäle, betrũbe”, τίτρημι, newer τιτράω “grind, pulverize, durchbohre” (Fut. τρήσω; τρητός “durchbohrt, durchlöchert”, τρῆμα “hole”), τετραίνω ds. (compare Lith. trinù); κυκλοτερής “ round twiddled, twisted, rotated, revved, revolved “, τέρετρον “borer”, τερέω “ drill, wimble, bore a hole, drechsle”; ἔτορε “durchbohrte” (participle present ἀντι-τορεῦντα, perf. τετορημένος), τόρος “chisel” (compare also τορός “ piercing loud” under *toro-s “loud”), τορεύς “Grabstichel, chisel”, τορεία “das Verfertigen erhabener Arbeit in Stein or metal “, τορεύω “carve”; τόρνος “Zirkel, Dreheisen; Kreisbewegung” (τόρονος τόρνος. Σαραντῖνοι Hes., compare lak. τορονευτός); τόρμος “hole”; about Gk. ἀτάρτηρος “ inconsiderate “ (?) s. Frisk 176; Alb. tjer ‘spinne” (*terō); Lat. terō, -ere, trīvī, trītum “rub, grind “, the prefixed present forms from the basis trēi-, trī-, likewise dētrīmentum (synonymous termentum by Paul. Fest. 498 L.) “ failure, damage”, trīticum “wheat” (“*Dreschgetreide”), triō m. “Pflugochse” (“ a terenda terra “), trībulum “ a threshingsledge, wooden platform studded with iron teeth “, trībulüre “press; beset, plague (late)”, tetricus “ grumpy, surly, sullen, finster”, intertrīgō “wundgeriebene place”; teres, -etis (eig. “glattgerieben”) “länglichrund, glattrund, slim, fine”, terebrü “borer”; trīcae “Ränke” (pl.) to *trī-kü “tribulatio”; toch AB trik- “in die Irre go, fehlen”, В traik- “in die Irre guide, lead”, participle perf. pass.tetrīku; from the same basis trēi-, trī- (as trīvī etc.) M.Ir. trēith “weak”, and Gk. τρί̄βω (τρί̄ψω, ἐτρί̆βην) “rub, grind, pulverize, entkräfte etc.”, τρῐβή “das Reiben etc.”, τρίβος m. f. “abgetretener way, road; das Reiben, Verzug”; compare Church Slavic trěbiti “clean, roden” from Proto-Slav. *terb- (τρί̄βω : Lat. trī- = sl. terb- : Lat. ter-); in addition M.Ir. trebaid (*tr̥b-) “pflũgt, bewohnt”, O.Ir. trebar ‘smart” (partly with treb, S. 1090, zusammengefallen); O.Ir. tarathar, Welsh etc. taradr “borer”; M.Ir. tuirenn (*torinü) “wheat” (“ Reibefrucht “); O.H.G. drüen “turn, work a lathe” (originally “*drehend reiben or bore”), O.E. ðrüwan “ds.”; intr. ‘sich umkehren” (Eng. throw “throw”), O.H.G. drüt, O.E. ðrǣ d, O.Ice. Þrüðr “Draht, filament “ (*Þrēðu-z eig. “the Gedrehte”), O.H.G. drüti “quick, fast, rash, hasty, hasty” (eig. ‘sich hurtig drehend”); besides Gmc. *Þr-el- in nd. drillen “bore, torment, smite”, M.H.G. gedrollen “ twiddled, twisted, rotated, revved, revolved, rounded “, Ger. drillen “winden, bore, torment, smite”, O.Fris. thralle adv. “quick, fast”, M.L.G. dral “ round twiddled, twisted, rotated, revved, revolved, sich wirbelnd”, M.H.G. drel, Ger. dial. drell, drall ‘strong, tight, firm, strong”, wherewith O.E. ðearl ‘stern, hard” perhaps identical is (*tor-los); O.Ice. Þarmr, O.E. ðearm, O.H.G. daram “ intestine “ (= Gk. τόρμος “hole”); with Þrē- the changing by ablaut Þrō- in Goth. ÞrōÞjan “ train, practice “ = Russ. tratitь “consume”, Cz. tratiti “lose, zugrunde richten”, to Lith. trótinti ‘stir, tease, irritate, banter”, žem. trúotas “whetstone”, Ltv. truõts ds. (Trautmann 326, Vasmer 3, 133); Goth. Þriskan, O.Ice. Þriskja, Þryskva, O.E. ðerscan, O.H.G. drescan “dreschen”, to Lith. sutrẽškinti causative “entzweischlagen”, also M.Ir. tresc “offal, residuum “ (whether not O.Ice. Lw.); compare Lith. treške ́ ti “crack, crackle “, Church Slavic trěskъ “fragor, fulmen”, ablaut. troska ds. etc.; Lith. tiriù, tìrti “forschen”; O.C.S. tьrǫ, trěti “rub” (Proto-Slav.. *tьro, *terti); ablaut. Church Slavic istor “damnum”, Russ. tor “gebahnter way” (: Gk. τόρος “borer, chisel”) from Proto- Slav.. *tara- m. “Reibung”; balto-Slav. *tīrti- f. “Zerreibung”, in аCz. trt ds., infinitive Church Slavic trъti, Serb.tȑti = Lith. tìrti; based on as Slav. infinitive *terti auf zweisilbiger basis, as also balto-Slav. *tīrta- “zerrieben” in Serb. tȑt = Lith. tìrtas “durchforscht”; with n-suffix: Lith. trinù (*trenō), trìnti “rub”, Ltv. trinu, trìt “rub, schleifen”; with figurative meaning also O.Pruss. trinie “ threatens “, trintawinni f. “Rächer” and Lith. trene ́ti “modern”; B. root form teru- : treu-: O.Ind. táruṇa-, Gk. τέρυ etc., see below *ter-2 “tender”; Gk. ἀτειρής (*ἀ-τερF-ης?) perhaps “unverwũstlich”; τρύ̄ω “reibe auf, erschöpfe”, τερύσκετο ἐτείρετο Hes.; τρύσκει τρύχει, ξηραίνει Hes., τρῦμα, τρύ̄μη “hole”, τρῡτάνη “das Zũnglein an the Waage” (originally from the aperture, in the sich die tongue bewegt); τιτρώσκω “I bewältige, damage, verwunde” (Fut. τρώσω), τρώω (*τρωFω) “durchbohre, verwunde, verletze”, τρῶσις, Dor. Ion. τρῶμα “wound” (because of Att. τραῦμα ds. with ō from ōu); Welsh taraw (*toraw) “hit”, trewis “er schlug”, M.Welsh tereu “hits, knocks”, M.Bret. tarauat “rub”, O.Bret. toreusit “attrivit” (*torōu̯ -: Gk. τορεύω), compare Bret. Vannes torein “hit” (Loth. RC 37, 47 f.); Lith. truniù, -e ́ti “faulen”, eig. “*aufgerieben, morsch become”, Lith. triùškinu, trùškinu “crunch “, perhaps (as “*noise as beim Darũberreiben”), truškù , -e ́ti “ crackle, knistern, beim Brechen from wood under likewise” (compare Gk. τρύσκω “rub”); O.C.S. trovǫ, truti, ablaut. causative traviti “ consume “ (IE *treu̯ō: *trōu̯ ei̯ ō); O.C.S. trava f. “garden” (ablaut. trěva from *trēuü), Russ. travá “grass” (in addition the Ger. FlN Trave); ablaut. Proto-Slav.. *trūi̯ ō “rub” in Church Slavic tryjǫ, tryti (compare Gk. τρύ̄ω “reibe auf”: τρῡσί-βιος “das Leben erschöpfend”); here also Church Slavic trizna “Totenfeier” (from *tryzna); O.E. ðrōwigean (*ðrōwōjan ) “leiden, dulden”, O.H.G. drōa “onus, passio”, druoē̆ n, druota “pati”; O.E. līcðrōwere “ein Aussätziger”, O.Ice. līkÞrür “aussätzig”; O.Ice. Þrü f. (*Þrawō) “heftiges, leidvolles desire”, Þrü and Þreyja “long, want, sich sehnen”, Þrü n. “ contrariness, pertinacia”, Þrür “pertinax”, O.E. ðrēa, ðrawu f. “affliction, tribulation; threat “, O.S. thrüwerk “affliction” = O.E. ðrēaworc “ woefulness “, O.H.G. drawa, thrauwa, drōa “ threat, Drohen”, O.E. ðrēan “threaten, beset, plague”, O.H.G. drawen, drewen, drauwen, drōen , Ger. drohen, dräuen; with the meaning- development “rub - squeeze, press”: O.E. geðrūen “zusammengepreßt, verdichtet”, ðrȳ n “press”; Toch. A tsru “wenig” (*teru̯o-). C. As extension the i-basis kann gelten: *trēid- in Welsh trwyddo “bore”, Lith. tríedžiu “have starken diarrhea”; compare under S. 1076. D. extensions from ter- and treu-: 1. terb-: s. S. 1071 under. 2. terg-: Lat. tergō, -ere, tergēo, -ēre “abwischen, clean”, mantēlum, mantēle “Handtuch” (*man-terg-sli-, to manus S. 740), changing through ablaut Umbr. acc. sg. mantrahklu, mandraclo “mantēle” (*-trüg-kla); Goth. Þaí rko n. “hole”, zero grade M.L.G. dork “Kielraum”, O.E. ðurruc “cumba”, “caupolus”; *trōg-, *trǝg- in Gk. τρώγω “zernage, knuppere, fresse Rohes” (Aor. ἔτραγον), τρωγάλια “Näschereien”, τρώγλη “hole, cave”, τρώξ “Kornwurm”, τράγος “ he-goat; billy goat “; Arm. t”urc, gen. t”rcoy “mala, maxilla” (nom. instead of *t”ruc from *trōĝ - through Entgleisung after dem gen. t”rcoy?) and aracem “weide” (*trǝĝ -); Toch. AB trüsk- “chew”. 3. terĝh-: O.C.S. trězati, trьzati “ rend “, with Velar tъrgati, trъgnǫti ds. 4. terp-, trep- (only Bal.-Slav.): Ltv. tǜ rps “worm” (“the Zerbohrende”), Lith. tárpas “Zwischenraum, Lũcke, cleft, gap”, tar̃p, ter̃p “ between “; Lith. trapùs “ brittle, light brechend”, Ltv. trapjš, trapans “mũrbe”, trapains “morsch, brittle, verwitternd”, trapêt, trepêt “verwittern, faul, mũrbe become”; unclear O.C.S. trapъ “pit, pothole” (*torp-), Serb. trap “Rũbengrube”. 5. treugh-: perhaps Gk. τρύ̄χω “τρύω”, τρῦχος n. “das Abgerissene, rag”, τρῡχηρός “abgerissen, zerlumpt”; O.Ir. trōg, truag “ woeful, wretched, miserable, unlucky “; Welsh M.Bret. tru “ woeful, wretched, miserable “, Gaul. PN Trougillus, Trōgus. 6. treuk-: Welsh trwch “ cropped, truncated, cut off “, trychu “cut, clip” (*truk-s-); O.Ice. Þrō, pl. Þrø̄ r f. “trough”, O.E. ðrūh, gen. ðrȳ h f. m. n. “ds., gully, coffin”, O.H.G. drūh drūch (actually “*Verbrecherblock”) “Fußfessel, Tierfalle”, Ger. Drauche “Falle, Wolfs- or Fuchseisen”, O.S. thrūh “manacle”; with gramm. variation Ice. Þrūga , Nor. dial. trūga, tryge, trjug “kind of snowshoe”; O.Ice. Þrūga “threaten” (see to meaning above M.H.G. drohen); intensive O.S. Þrykkja, O.E. ðryccan “press, urge, press, push, press”, O.H.G. drucken, Ger. drũcken; Lith. trúk-stu, -au, -ti “ rend, break, rupture, platzen”, trũkis “crack, break, col, gap”, Ltv. trũk-stu, -u, -t “entzweigehen, break, rupture; lack, fehlen”, trũkums “break; lack”; traũks “Geschirr, vessel”, Lith. traukai “Gefäße” (“*ausgebohrtes, gehöhltes Stammstũck”), Lith. tráukti “ziehen”, O.Pruss. pertraūki “verschloß” (eig. “umzog”), Ltv. traukt “hit”; Lith. trùkti “dauern, währen”, trúkščioti “ twitch “. 7. treup-: Gk. τρῡπάω “ drill, wimble, bore a hole, durchbohre”, τρύ̄πανον “borer”, τρύ̄πη “hole”; O.Pruss. trupis “clot, chunk”; Lith. trupù, -e ́ti “ crumb, spall, crumble “, trupùs “ crumbly “, traupus “ brittle “, Ltv. sa-trupêt “morsch become”; R.C.S. trupъ (*troupos) “Baumklotz; corpse”, O.C.S. trupije “θνησιμαῖα”, Ser.-Cr. trûp “trunk” etc., O.C.S. truplь “hollow”. Maybe Alb. trup “body, trunk”
    References: WP. I 728 ff., WH. II 649, 670, 672 f., 704 f., Trautmann 324 f., 326 f., 330, Vasmer 3, 95 f., 97, 124, 130 f., 143 f., Frisk 177, Mayrhofer 1, 514.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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